Established in 1895 by the Swedish chemist and inventor of dynamite Alfred Bernhard Nobel, the Nobel Prize is an annual award acknowledging outstanding contributions to physics, 化学, 生理学或医学奖, 文学, 与和平. Many Harvard faculty have been honored with this prestigious award.
A pioneering theoretical physicist from the dawn of the atomic age, Roy Glauber updated the theory of the nature of light from its origins in the 19th century to include modern quantum principles. He helped explain how light can travel in the form of quanta (p艺术icles) as well as rays or waves.
A die-hard Red Sox fan, Dudley Herschbach describes his research by pitching baseball metaphors. “想想看棒球比赛的人群. In ordinary 化学, you have to deal with the whole crowd at once. 实际上……, what we’ve done is eavesdrop on conversations between molecules, as if listening to a pair of people in that crowd.”
Linda Buck received the Nobel Prize for work relating to the sense of smell, which the Nobel committee noted had “long remained the most enigmatic of our senses. The basic principles for recognizing and remembering about 10,000 different odours were not understood.”
The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War—founded in Boston in June of 1980 by four Harvard physicians, Bernard Lown of Harvard School of Public Health, 艾布拉姆斯和赫伯特, Eric Chivian(如图), and James Muller of 巴黎人贵宾厅医学院—is a federation of national groups dedicated to mobilizing the influence of the medical profession against the threat of nuclear weapons.
Much of Am艺术ya Sen’s work deals with development economics, which is often devoted to the welfare of the poor. He has developed new ways to predict and fight famine as well as ways to measure poverty, so that more effective social programs can be designed.